We acknowledge that environmental protection and adaptation on climate change is a great opportunity to reshape our operations aiming to become a positive contributor. Climate related risk assessment help us to define our strategy, to align our investment decisions and to adopt our actions, making the most out of our operations on a risk conscious basis.

Effluents and waste effluents
Water and effluents

Status: 12 out of 21 environmental
goals for 2025 have been already
embedded in 2023



When it comes to climate change, we recognize the necessity of taking the necessary steps following the recommendations of the Task Force on Climate related Financial Disclosures (TCFD) to categorize, manage and report on climate related risks of both categories (physical and transition).

The physical risks are categorized as a. acute (extreme weather events) and b. chronic (changing weather patterns and rising mean temperature and sea level) while the transition risks are categorized as a. policy and legal, b. technology c. market and d. reputation. In our CDP report we provide details of our organization’s use of climate related scenario analysis, the way same shapes our strategy as well as how these risks influence our financial planning. Risks & Opportunities are identified to address the influence along with financial and social impact that climate change will have on Danaos.

Our commitment is to be carbon neutral by 2050, pursuing efforts to be net zero earlier subject to technology and shipyards’ slot availability. When it comes to physical climate risks Danaos uses 4°C scenario referred to IPCC’s RCP8.5. That is selected in order to address natural hazards such as tropical cyclones, sea level rise resulting to more aggressive tides and swell, drought and flooding, in a more structured way and cultivate awareness to our frontline employees. The necessity of better ship designs from both operational and strength point of view as well as the need for advanced prediction tools and training create both risks and opportunities. It will be risky for ships to operate in worse physical climate conditions and be severely exposed in case of an accident or port incident, but at the same time, a well-prepared ship would be able to promote company’s competitive advantage.

Having considered climate change scenario SSP1-2.6 and RCP 8.5, in Danaos we invested in automated systems for advanced sea routing and passage plan control which have been installed to all company vessels and at the same time investment has been placed in a software for advanced mooring forces calculation and employees training, so as to ensure safe operation while vessels at port. In the meantime, we are monitoring developments in the field waiting for International Association of Classification Societies (IACS) to adopt new, upgraded structural rules for new vessels. In addition following the damages that our major lubricant and additive suppliers sustained due to their hurricane-damaged product berths and the consequent shortage in supply, that could result in disruption of vessels’ operation, we adapted our consumables management policy by optimizing the supplied quantities to our vessels,

whilst we devised a smart monitoring and alerting system via our WAVES data analytics platform through which we ensure the necessary quantities are always kept onboard to guarantee vessels’ safe operation. On top of the above we have diversified our suppliers and supply ports to have alternative supply options. Finally, as a measure to deal with prolonged stays at anchorage owed to extreme weather conditions ie coastal flood, heavy wind, thunderstorms that may impact port and terminals infrastructure and result in physical climate disruption we have invested in the application of top low friction paints that guarantee longer idling periods while we have adjusted our provisions management policy accordingly.

Our Head office building is our key land – based asset. This is at low risk for physical impact of climate change and disruption of operations. A mitigation solution tailored to the scenario of total destruction, which is already in place, is the set-up of a back-up land-based infrastructure which is established in another country, while in case that that the approach to the Head Office premises is blocked by whatever reason remote operation is feasible and well tested during COVID pandemic period.

When it comes to transition scenarios, Danaos uses the Scenario Analysis recommended by TCFD on a basis of Below 2°C although ultimate target is 1.5°C. Our scenarios refer to Scope 1 emissions by the ships, since it is our only direct emitting source. We selected B2DS scenario & referred to IEA’s SDS, B2DS and 3rd IMO GHG Study. B2DS has stricter regulations including carbon taxes, which raise both risks and opportunities. Summarizing the risks, the most profound is the risk of being unable to meet decarbonization targets, being low CII rated and lose our competitive advantage. The above risk has been addressed by the development of our Low Carbon Transition Plan (LCTP), in which we record in a transparent and structured way Danaos policies to achieve our environmental goals.

LCTP addresses IMO targets following IEA SDS pursuing efforts to meet the stricter 1.5oC Paris Agreement goal. Following LCTP roadmap will create opportunities for further business development with commercially attractive ships of low carbon footprint. Considering the IEA B2DS scenario analysis and as a first step, in Danaos we decided to strengthen decarbonization policy, setting new stricter targets of 50% carbon intensity reduction by 2030 compared to 2008 levels, with the aim to be carbon neutral by 2050. Danaos decarbonization path, as per LCTP, goes through 2nd hand ECO vessels acquisition and a NB vessels program with ECO vessels ready to accommodate green fuels in the future, with already 14 green newbuilding vessels under construction to be delivered from 2024-2027. Our ambition is that the very ambitious scenario SS91-1.9 will prevail with the 1.5oC objective of the Paris Agreement. That is why we are trying to identify ways to align our targets with SBTi targets, however there are certain hindrances that need to be overcome.

LCTP addresses IMO targets following IEA SDS pursuing efforts to meet the stricter 1.5oC Paris Agreement goal.
In Danaos we decided to strengthen decarbonization policy, setting new stricter targets of 50% carbon intensity reduction by 2030 compared to 2008 levels, with the aim to be carbon neutral by 2050.

Our LCTP articulates the main aspects of our environmental strategy in:

  • Maximizing the efficiency of the existing fleet. To this respect we have invested in the application of a great number of energy efficiency measures over the years and have developed a shadow Internal Carbon Pricing tool in order to evaluate the impact of these measures as well as sophisticated performance monitoring tools in order to assess our investments. Notwithstanding the above, the implementation of such measures on the existing fleet has clearly a ceiling when it comes to the savings potential.
  • Cooperating closely with our clients on a transparent – data sharing basis aiming to optimize the vessel’s trade route through an in-situ developed advanced leg analysis methodology
  • Working on the prevention of power penalty development through advanced performance monitoring tools that consists top priority for us. We try to achieve the maximum engagement of our people in this process. To this respect we invest in continuous training to cultivate the importance of placing emphasis on the performance evaluation and proactive reaction in the sense of on-time detection of any potential issue and consequent undertaking of the necessary corrective actions.

It’s not only that propeller should rotate continuously which is the all time great principle but also that it should be at the min possible slip for the prevailing condition in order for the vessel and the company to be sustainable in the long-term.

  • Closely following up the developments of green fuels and investing in the renewal of the fleet with vessels ready to operate on green fuels as soon as they become widely available.

In the scope of DANAOS disclosure about the application of TCFD framework in the management of climate related risks, a gap analysis was performed, the climate related opportunities were assessed, their potential impacts and Danaos strategy to realize same were mapped. In parallel Danaos Climate risks were assessed, their potential impacts and Danaos response to these issues have been identified. Description of the identified opportunities, potential financial impact figure and the strategy to realize the opportunity are thoroughly described in Danaos CDP report, at https://www.cdp.net/en/responses/




We are closely following up the developments of green fuels and investing in the renewal of the fleet with vessels ready to operate on green fuels as soon as they become widely available.



Regulatory framework can and should play a key role in driving shipping’s decarbonization in a global scale, as harmonically as possible. Short-term decarbonization measures include the Energy Efficiency Existing Ship Index (EEXI) and the Carbon Intensity Indicator (CII) under Annex VI of MARPOL, implemented from 2023 onwards and adding extra weight of the previous rules of the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) and the Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP). Compliance with IMO measures (EEXI, CII) is already constraining sailing in lower speeds will more efficient operation is required for achieving good CII scores. By 2026, the share of good CII-performing vessels, thus C-rated or better, will be 49% if no measures are taken.

Previous July 2023 was a milestone date as the IMO MEPC 80 adopted the Revised GHG Reduction Strategy with more ambitious targets. Before implementation, a comprehensive impact assessment will take place. The Initial Strategy of 2018 targeted to reduce the carbon intensity of international shipping by at least 40 per cent by 2030, and total GHG emissions by at least 50 per cent by 2050, keeping as reference year the 2008. With the 2023 Strategy a clear timeline is set for the first time, with adoption of the so-called “basket of measures” in autumn 2025 and the new IMO GHG Strategy for GHG emissions reduction from ships in 2028. The basket of mid-

term measures includes both technical and economic candidates. As far as the technical aspects development of fuel standards, with established energy efficiencies are under the scope. Economic elements such as a levy system or other feebate carbon pricing mechanisms are expected to drive competitiveness and bridge the gap between cost of conventional and alternative fuels. Apart from revised GHG strategy, regulation regarding use of biofuels, onboard Carbon Capture and limiting SOX and NOX emissions have also been addressed. Based on evaluation of revised strategy’s targets, the majority of the shipping’s energy transition must happen not after 2040. And this should be a fair and equitable transition, avoiding fragmented policy making and achieving workable solutions for vulnerable economies.

Shipowners are facing dilemmas of retrofitting an old vessel or scrapping a not so old vessel. Regulations call for fleet renewals, but this is with high risk in an era of uncertainty regarding alternative fuels landscape and regulatory regime, shipbuilding yard’s capacities to accommodate new tonnage and retrofitting existing one, plus the volatility expected for the recycling market. Ports and terminals are facing similar challenges regarding their investments on infrastructure and logistics.


The impacts of Climate Change are already increasingly acknowledged by society. Contribution of shipping in about 90% of world trade by volume is undoubtedly accompanied with GHG emissions, however estimated to be around 2.8% of the total global anthropogenic CO2. At the regulatory level, the shipping industry is addressing climate issues through MARPOL and IMO continues to support and practically contribute to the UN Sustainable Development Goal 13, aiming to combat the climate change.

Our company embraces IMO’s vision and its revised targets as set through the latest MEPC and works towards solid proposals for their improvement. With the IMO recently taking actual steps rather than promises, the EU has also emerged as the most influential regional lawmaker, setting specific requirements for ships. The ‘Fit For 55’ package, as part of the European Green Deal, is certainly a milestone, which, if translated from paper to actions, might surpass the 55% reduction in GHG emission by 2030 and may constitute the EU carbon-neutral by 2050. Five are the shipping-related items of subject package: Fuel EU Maritime, Energy Taxation Directive, Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Regulation, Renewable Energy Directive and EU Emissions Trading System. Among them, a groundbreaking step was the long-anticipated inclusion of shipping in EU ETS from 2024 through a phase-in period by 2026, with methane and NOX to be also included in this cap & trade scheme by 2026 and further on.

The FuelEU, adopted and to be implemented from 2026, is expected to have catalytic impact on bridging the gap between green fuels and fossil fuels. Focusing only on fuel aspects and not to any kind of optimization, either design or operational, will be the first fuel standard incentivizing the adoption of green fuels from shipping with a rapid pace, considering its stringent limits. In Danaos we have developed online tools for monitoring the emissions of the vessels on a real-time basis, enabling a first benchmarking of FuelEU compliance and arising costs and risks. The RED II supports the development of renewable energy across the continent. This will be a turn point for the production of e-fuels and reduce of their production cost, making large scale production feasible and viable. Another EU action related to the ESG framework and also declared as one of the most pivotal ones towards carbon economy, is the introduction of EU Taxonomy with the aim to classify investment in an environmental sustainability scale, by codifying the Green Bond Principles.

By overcoming the barriers of a fragmented world, moving further and faster to tackle emissions and ensure energy security with continuous regulatory upgrade and alternative fuels’ “invasion” in fuel mix, shipping sector faces a “third revolution” and a very demanding decade ahead.

To meet our goals, entire industry should embrace a mentality as expressed in a phrase of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe:

“He who moves not forward, goes backward.”


We approach the decarbonization journey towards 2050 with a blend of realism and optimism. Decarbonization will hinge on two primary pathways:
  1. Optimizing the current fleet of vessels, and
  2. Transitioning to a fleet of zero-carbon vessels powered by zero-carbon fuels.
Following the roadmap outlined in the Low Carbon Transition Plan (LCTP), the company aims to seize opportunities for further business development by investing in commercially attractive ships with a low carbon footprint. In alignment with the International Energy Agency’s (IEA) Beyond 2˚ Scenario (B2DS) analysis, Danaos has decided to bolster its decarbonization policy by setting more stringent targets. These targets include a 50% reduction in carbon intensity by 2030 compared to 2008 levels, with the ultimate aim of achieving carbon neutrality by 2050.

We embarked on a comprehensive Low Carbon Transition Plan (LCTP) aimed at reducing emissions from our fleet. In the short term (2022- 2023), we prioritized retrofitting the fleet. More than 225 installations took place on our vessels, ranging from propulsion improvement to navigation upgrades and M/E tunings. Still in compliance with our Low Friction Paint Campaign, 14 vessels have been LF painted, 1 vessel has silicone paints, and one propeller is silicone painted. These measures were complemented by optimization efforts in ship loading and steering, leading to significant power savings and subsequent reductions in carbon emissions. Anticipating regulatory changes, Danaos prepared for the inclusion in the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS), which are expected to further drive down vessels speed.

More than 225 installations took place on our vessels, from propulsion improvement to navigation upgrades and M/E tunings.

Medium-term opportunities (1-3 years) to reduce emissions from fossil fuels were explored. We committed to applying Alternative Marine Power (AMP) arrangements to 25% of our fleet by 2025, with a focus on supporting decarbonization at ports, especially those subject to regulations on on-shore power.

Additionally, the company investigated biodiesel as an alternative fuel, recognizing its potential to lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, particularly considering its technological readiness and near-term availability. The regulatory landscape also saw simplifications regarding the use of biofuels, with the IMO MEPC 78 outcome streamlining previous barriers for biofuel contents up to 30% (B30). Danaos actively participated in its charterers’ campaign, successfully supplying biofuel blends (B30 and B24) to eight vessels with the majority of them being certified as sustainable biofuels by the certification schemes (ISCC, RSB, REDcert-EU). The most significant concern when the conversation comes to biofuels is the biomass feedstock the fuels is produced from. The demand for biofuels is expecting a boom during next years and to avoid adverse effects in social and environmental areas, selection of feedstock should be treated with due diligence.

In addition, Danaos became a member of the Methanol Institute (MI) and of the Ammonia Energy Association to keep up with all developments in relation to methanol and ammonia use in the maritime industry.

Looking towards the long term, Danaos adopted a strategy of divesting from older technology vessels and acquiring new vessels with advanced environmental features. The company set standards for new builds, prioritizing vessels with ECO designs, Methanol Ready capabilities, and Cold Ironing plants. Already, Danaos has fourteen green newbuilding vessels under construction, scheduled for delivery between 2024 and 2027. All fourteen of our newbuilds in Korea and China will be methanol ready, while two of them will hold ammonia ready notation as well.

We adopted a diversification policy of Danaos portfolio thus in 2023 expanded our operation in dry bulk sector with the acquisition of seven Capsize bulk carriers while 3 additional Capesize carriers will be delivered within 2024. Studies on how to convert these vessels into more efficiently operating have already begun while first cases examined are already in materialization phase and they are relevant to propulsion improvements.

Engagement with suppliers was also crucial in Danaos’ decarbonization journey. The company promoted awareness, incentivized emissions reductions, and engaged with partners across the value chain, setting criteria for ESG performance. Danaos also recognized the importance of stake- holder engagement in achieving its decarbonization goals. Through its membership in industry associations such as the Global Maritime Forum (GMF), Danaos adhered to the Getting to Zero Coalition statement, aiming for net-zero emissions by 2050. The company also maintained contact with organizations like Science Based Targets (SBTi), actively monitoring developments in the finalization of science-based tools tailored for the shipping industry. Danaos embracing collaboration with stakeholders, including financial

institutions, industry associations, and suppliers, was essential in navigating the challenges of decarbonization and ensuring a sustainable future for the maritime industry.

Going one step further to fight climate change, Danaos in 2022 introduced carbon offsetting by neutralizing the Headquarters’ carbon footprint including employees commuting emissions, with the aim to balance unavoidable emissions. The carbon offsetting that was verified by a third party, is a proactive action outside our value chains to contribute towards decarbonization and is beyond our near-term and long-term targets set. This initiative also continued within 2023 where total 1,000 trees were planted, corresponding to the absorption of 22,000 kg CO2.

We committed to applying Alternative Marine Power (AMP) arrangements to 25% of our fleet by 2025, with a focus on supporting decarbonization at ports, especially those subject to regulations on on-shore power.
All fourteen of our newbuilds in Korea and China will be methanol ready, while two of them will hold ammonia ready notation as well.


We have developed a monitoring tool for the fleet’s emissions to evaluate and monitor energy efficiency. Danaos calculates the emissions of the entire fleet, to ensure transparency and emissions management. These metrics are indicators of environmental performance and are shared with clients, upon request, so that they can in turn evaluate their environmental footprint (value chain footprint – Scope 3 GHG protocol).

With new regulations on the carbon intensity effective since 1st January 2023 a significant impact on the operation of ships and more specifically vessels’ speed reduction, was anticipated to ensure compliance with new requirements.

Fleet’s average speed was significantly reduced in 2023 by 1 kn compared to 2022 and 1.5 kn compared to 2021.

The implementation of an extensive retrofit plan by Danaos in 2023, aimed at enhancing vessel energy efficiency, coupled with speed reduction initiatives, has led to a notable decrease in the fleet’s Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator (EEOI), dropping from 15.68 grams per ton per nautical mile in 2022 to 14.05 gr per ton per nautical mile in 2023. This achievement represents a substantial 48.5% reduction in CO2 emissions’ intensity compared to the 2008 baseline. As a direct result of reduced fuel consumption, emissions of both NOX and SOX emissions have also decreased accordingly.

Danaos target for 47.5% reduction of CO2 emissions in terms of intensity by 2025 (baseline 2008 IMO) (grCO2/tones*miles) was met 2 years earlier!
Significant amount of improvement reflected in above tabulated data is achieved through various optimization and retrofits. The formula used for the calculation of our emission KPIs are in line with the ones used by the KPI platform: https://www.shipping-kpi.org/. We adopted the above approach, to use the same reference tool as that of our charterers, so as to be fully aligned. After successful implementation of the IMO Sulphur cap 0.5 back in 2020 along with currently 9 vessels with open-loop scrubbers’ installation, Danaos has been also closely monitoring Sulphur and nitrogen oxides to be able to measure our impact into the atmosphere.

The twelve out of fourteen new buildings will be scrubber-fitted and also incorporating NOX emission reduction technology for Tier III compliance (SCR, EGR). R&D is constantly studying new technologies to identify the best fit for the fleet and the environment.

For the scrubber fitted vessels, aiming to accurately calculate the SOX emissions, we receive the data directly from emissions monitoring sensor. This way is possible having in our online platform the exact Sulphur calculation. We have also implemented in our systems the monitoring of both air emissions and wash-water discharged at sea, in order to timely identify and respectively rectify any potential malfunction and minimize violations.

Moreover, Danaos has implemented in its core strategy the installation of AMP in order to contribute to the reduction of emissions of ships while at berth. Our plan is to have 25% of the feet equipped with AMP by 2025.

For Danaos’ container feet 24% of vessels already fitted with AMPs in 2023 and 22% of total feet fitted with AMP in 2023 (feet growth in 2023 resulted in decrease in the percentage compared to 2022).

Danaos has implemented in its core strategy the installation of AMP in order to contribute to the reduction of emissions of ships while at berth.


The development of a sophisticated environmental routine that will incorporate an interactive Carbon Intensity Index calculation, vessel rating and projection of emitted CO2, setting the foundation for effectively responding to a potential emission trading or levy scheme that has been launched in Europe this year and is also a potential future IMO regulation.

Close monitoring of SOX scrubbers already installed on 9 vessels since 2019 is ongoing through our Waves data analytics platform along with reference log, ensuring continuous compliance with relevant regulations.

We also monitor closely regions that ban the open loop scrubbers to update our monitoring map accordingly.

We calculate our direct emissions (Scope 1) and indirect emissions from purchased electricity (Scope 2) and allocate same per client, while we are working on collecting value chain GHG (Scope 3) emissions related to our business activity which is a more difficult exercise. The procedure for Scope 3 emissions has been established and includes suppliers/partners reporting of their Scope 1 and 2 emissions allocated to Danaos.

Close monitoring of SOX scrubbers already installed on 9 vessels since 2019 is ongoing through our Waves data analytics platform along with reference log, ensuring continuous compliance with relevant regulations.

In the context of our commitment to high ESG standards, incorporating sustainability into our operational processes, business activities and strategy in all lifecycle steps, within 2022 for the first time, we released a vendors’ ESG questionnaire that will allow our company to evaluate our partners and gain a better understanding of our supply chain’s operation.

R&D department in cooperation with Procurement department, has created an Emissions Recording platform in Beyond WAVES environment, where partners are requested to report not only their Scope 1 and 2 emissions related to Danaos involvement and activities, but all ESG aspects that are considered important for sustainable business. The company has set prerequisite and mandatory

criteria, mainly related to people, and secondary ones related to GHG emissions. A number of KPIs has been introduced in order to follow up partners’ engagement status. Carbon emissions recording is done in Beyond WAVES platform. Our aim is to assess and measure sustainability activity and ensure the sustainable and efficient performance of our supply chain in compliance with our requirements and standards, which is necessary for creating positive value.

Our “Emissions Allocation” function devised in our WAVES system allocates our scope 1 emissions on a client/vessel basis so that our clients can it turn evaluate the size of their contribution in a holistic approach as a part of the value chain environmental footprint and refine their strategy accordingly.

We calculate our direct emissions (Scope 1) and indirect emissions from purchased electricity (Scope 2) and allocate same per client, while we are working on collecting value chain GHG (Scope 3) emissions.


We have incorporated the modifications from the old systems to the new ones and, according to the regulations, any deliberate emission of ODS is prohibited. For new building vessels, any installation containing ODS, such as halons and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), is prohibited. The Freon Types in use are R-404A and R-407C. Freon losses for 2023 were at 8.84% of the total capacity (2123kg approximately) showing that our efforts to reduce losses are paying off.
We plan to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change, based on EU F-gas Regulation (517/2014) adopted 1 Jan 2015 for reduction of use of HFCs. A service ban on HFCs with high Global Warming Potential (GWP >2,500) like R-404A, R-507 and R-422D has been imposed since 1 Jan 2020. The F-gas regulation applies to all EU countries and EU fagged vessels. Therefore, replenishment of retrofit of systems with lower GWP refrigerants takes place where required.


Our R&D Dpt has extensively investigated options for minimizing transportation costs and the subsequent fuel consumption required per TEU. This includes optimizing the vessels’ design and operating profile and consequently monitoring performance. More than that, the R&D Dpt is working on a series of alternative fuels such as LNG, methanol, ammonia and hydrogen.

Danaos is compliant with ISO-50001 Environmental Management System adopted in 2015 is now stimulating energy efficient operational practices and provides the necessary metrics. To achieve decarbonization big money need to be invested from the sector. With the framework and scalability of green fuels still a grey zone, optimizations are the first measure being implemented by the majority of shipowners.

The R&D Department in Danaos monitors all matters related to climate change aiming to energy efficiency improvement onboard and formulates relevant KPIs to ensure compliance with regulations. More specifIcally, in Danaos we have been working on evaluating our vessels’ performance and examining measures to increase energy effIciency and improve Carbon Intensity Indicator (CII) rating.

On top of the above and as a part of our effort to achieve optimum CII results for our feet, numerous retrofits have taken place within 2023 as depicted in below graph:

All above investments are of course distributed in different implementation period throughout year 2023 and various retrofits were carried out on different vessels with various operational profiles. From the investment in above low carbon products and enhancements, we have concluded to a fleet weighted average of 4% savings per vessel.

Apart from being a leading company in containership sector, we have diversified our operation in dry bulk sector with the acquisition of seven Capesize Bulk Carriers, while three additional Capesize carriers will be delivered within 2024. Studies mentioned above are including these ladies as well. Compliance with Rightship standards and aiming to achieve good fleet rating scores refers to energy optimizations as well, apart from safety aspects.

From the investment in above low carbon products and enhancements, we have concluded to a feet weighted average of 4% savings per vessel.
Apart from being a leading company in contain.ership sector, we have diversifed our operation in dry bulk sector with the acquisition of seven Capesize Bulk Carriers, while three additional Capesize carriers will be delivered within 2024.


In Danaos we implement an ambitious plan to renew our feet by investing in new vessel’s buildings.
Fourteen (14) new building vessels are under construction and are scheduled for delivery between 2024 and 2027. All fourteen of our newbuilds in Korea and China will be methanol ready, while two of them will hold ammonia ready notation as well.

By 2050 all Newbuildings to be carbon neutral

All our newbuilds in Korea and China will be methanol ready, while two of them will hold ammonia ready notation as well.


We report on the fleet annual energy consumption on an annual basis. Fuel consumption encompasses fossil energy consumed/combusted at Danaos operated vessels and infrastructures. Total energy consumption improved (decreased) by 12.1% in 2023 compared to 2022.

The introduction of renewable resources in energy mix is in its infant stages (1.4%) in 2023 although doubled compared to 2022 (0.6%). There are no significant consumptions of energy outside the organization that Danaos operations contribute to.


The percentage of renewable energy consumption in Danaos headquarters have been improved significantly in 2023.

The majority (53%) of energy consumed sourced from renewable resources in 2023.



Danaos operations creates meaningful waste impacts with used spare parts from ship maintenance programs, the sludge generated from fuels consumed, the on board garbage generated during shipping operations and finally wastes produced from onshore infrastructures of the company.

In the maritime industry parts from the vessels are continuously refurbished by a service provider until the end of their life span. The concepts for resource-efciency, waste management and circular economy are all integrated into Danaos’ organizational policies. We continuously investigate in ports all around the world sources of specific recycling, especially for large components i.e., main engine or radar. By adopting the 3R reduce-reuse-recycle principle in its operations.

Danaos Electrical Department launched the ReNAV campaign/scheme with the purpose of upcycling old navigation and communication equipment. Our feet has many sister vessels and equipment is often similar between vessels. ReNav re-utilizes old equipment or spare parts

extends life cycles reducing environmental impact. When a retrofit is performed, the components removed are assessed and if unaffected by the fault that caused the need for retrofit are dispatched to another vessel or collected in the office as spares for future use. Marine type monitors, processor cards and satellite communication systems are often part of the ReNav scheme. Parts or equipment which are not possible to be utilized in any way are stripped down to basic components (batteries, bare metal parts like frames etc., electronic components) and delivered for recycling. Through the Renav campaign within 2023, a total of 26 systems have been recycled, 13 systems have been upcycled (have been retrofitted and kept in office stock for future use) and 3 systems have been repaired.

Stepping on with further recycling action in 2023 we have kicked of the Moorings Recycling Campaign, with eight vessels engaged and offloading ropes and coils, more than 25 pieces, for recycling purposes, for which certification of collection has been provided by relevant facilities.

Through the Renav campaign within 2023, a total of 26 systems have been recycled, 13 systems have been upcycled (have been retrofitted and kept in office stock for future use) and 3 systems have been repaired.


We pay special attention to the proper recording of hazardous materials, ensuring smooth cooperation with our suppliers, safe recycling of vessels at the end of their life and selecting recycling facilities which embody safer practices.

Since 2017 Danaos has been training its own Quality Control Engineers, as “Hazmat Experts” (currently approved by two Classification Societies: KR & DNV). Danaos’ Quality Control Engineers have proceeded with sampling and prepared Inventories of Hazardous Materials (IHM) for over 80% of the entire Fleet, while acting proactively, IHMs are in the pipeline for the rest of the fleet despite not being required to comply with EU SRR No.1257/2013 as per current routes.

Within 2023, IHM manuals have been prepared for 3 additional vessels in order all of Danaos Fleet to comply in case of any future change in Flag or route, while 8 additional vessels recently acquired will be also certified during 1st quarter of 2024.

In total numbers, from a diversified fleet of 73 containerships and bulk carriers, 85% holds IHM Certificate, which will be extended to 92% in 2024.

The majority of the vessels have been completed during 2020 in order to comply with the Regulation when entered into force.


Garbage segregation takes place onboard as part of the DSMS – Safety Management and pollution prevention procedures. We encourage preventing, reducing, recycling, reusing, and minimizing waste streams including garbage generated on board. We provide separate waste streams at the point of collection so that garbage can be separated and discharged ashore more effectively.

Wastes from ships are delivered to wastes collectors at various ports and then depends on local regulations regarding recycling and disposal, which are unknown to us. It is company’s policy to separate wastes both onboard and ashore, having them ready for recycling. Waste streams on board can be divided into two main categories: liquids and solids. Both are controlled, grouped in specific categories, and disposed according to MARPOL (International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships).

Operational wastes include those in solid form which are related to the ship’s maintenance. Some are disposed ashore for recycling i.e., metallic parts and others such as oily rags (which

are non-recyclable) are incinerated onboard to reduce the volume of waste ending up at the landfills. In compliance with the regulations ashes are collected, retained onboard and discharged at port reception facilities to be further used as raw material in the construction industry. In 2023 the total amount of ashes disposed ashore were recorded as part of our systematic reporting and is shown below.

Other garbage generated from the living spaces is segregated in categories and disposed ashore for recycling. Waste that is categorized as Hazardous and Medical is carefully segregated, clearly labelled and disposed ashore according to international and national regulations.

Two sub-categories of operational waste which are totally separated as Hazardous consist of jerrycans & paint cans for which special care is provided to minimize as much as possible the remnants of paint/chemical contained. In 2023, we started to record the quantities of these two items separately from other operational waste in order to contribute to a safer environment.

Improvements recorded on wastes recycling between 2022 and 2023.

The figures are available in the table below:

As part of the 3R program our intention is to install compactors in all company vessels by 2025 and thus reduce the waste volume onboard by 50%.

As part of our efforts to minimize ship generated garbage we endeavor to receive as little as possible packaging on board our ships. Towards this direction we have agreed with our approved ship-chandlers to a number of practices such as:

  • Using supplies that come in bulk packaging, considering factors such as adequate self-life (once a container is open).
  • Using supplies that come in reusable or recyclable packaging and containers.
  • Avoiding supplies that are packaged in plastic, unless reusable or recyclable plastic is used.
  • Wrapping which protects goods on their way to the ship should be replaced in the port before receiving the goods. Crew should return to suppliers’ plastic, paper, and wooden packing materials.
Danaos has invested in garbage compactors. As part of the 3R program our intention is to install compactors in all company vessels by 2025 and thus reduce the waste volume onboard by 50%. The total waste volumes produced onboard per DWT between 2022 and 2023 are available in the table below:

In 2023, garbage compactors were installed on another ten (10) vessels of our fleet amounting the total number of ships operating compactors to twenty-four (24). By the end of 2023, 33% of the fleet is already equipped with compactor, with installed units reaching 36% of the container fleet.

This year the total produced quantity of plastic waste onboard was 2336.33m3, showing an increase of 15.6% due to fleet increase, while the quantity disposed for recycling was increased by 13.5% compared to 2022.

The waste liquids category includes mostly oil residues (sludge) produced by the operation of ship’s main engine and other auxiliary machinery, resulting from the purification of oil. The amount of sludge generated is proportional to the fuel consumed onboard. By analyzing the quality of fuels in specialized laboratories and the constant maintenance of purification machineries we ensure the minimum quantity of fuel residues. For the year 2023 the produced quantity is 15,968m3. Sludge is disposed to shore reception facilities where after special treatment is used further in industrial processes.

All fleet vessels carry onboard a specific Garbage & Sewage Management Plan (GSMP), a Garbage Record Book and placards for the familiarization of crew and visitors regarding the proper handling of garbage on board. Shipboard personnel are trained in the procedures outlined in GSMP and this is recorded. Vessels are controlled for their compliance through audits and Port State Control inspections or local port agencies.


In parallel with shipboard management, we continuously strive to improve the management of waste generated in our headquarters. As part of our Environmental Action Plan, we monitor the average paper consumption per employee per day and we always encourage our people to reduce paper consumption. In 2023 it was noted a drop in total paper consumption which reached a reduction of 15.8%.

At the same time e-waste generation is of major concern. Danaos invests in high end data and networking electronic equipment attaining

information security and prolonged life cycles. Any obsolete equipment classified as e-waste can either be in working condition or be unusable. IT equipment which remains in working condition after it has been data-wiped and refurbished is donated to charity institutions. Any equipment that we can’t re use in house is recycled by professional companies.

Additionally, we abide by the contract with our Supplier to return all the empty toner cartridges for recycling. Within 2023 a total of 100 toner cartridges were collected from our office.

As part of our Environmental Action Plan, we monitor the average paper consumption per employee per day and we always encourage our people to reduce paper consumption. In 2023 it was noted a drop in total paper consumption which reached a reduction of 15.8%.



Environmental protection and pollution prevention are considered as top priority matters by all crew. An action plan described by a set of measures is in place to mitigate the risk of oil spill, such as maintenance of all critical machineries for the related operations, routine drills and simulations, training both onboard and onshore through safety meetings, and a strong crisis management policy. In Danaos we implement a Zero MARPOL Incident policy, and any oil spill or leak is documented, reported, and analyzed with a view to ensure that similar incidents do not occur in the future.

The most common reason for spillages is human factor while minimizing the exposure risk associated with pollution is a challenging task. Danaos has developed a Safety Management System and policies that promote pollution prevention and we have taken a step further to predict and prevent any potential threats to the marine environment. Danaos is continuously operating with “zero spills”, reflecting the structure and the efforts of the Company.

At same time we have established and implemented a robust Environmental Management System and our fleet systematically complies with or exceeds environmental laws and regulations as imposed by:
  • IMO
  • U.S. Oil Pollution Act of 1990
  • CERCLA (spills and releases of hazardous substances)
  • Clean Water Act
  • Clean Air Act
  • EU MRV regulation
For 2023 there were zero (0) cases of spills above 1bbl while zero containers have been reported to be loss at sea from a total of 4.4 million TEU transported.

In January 2023, a leaky overboard valve from container vessel “Europe” had as a result few liters of marine fuel oil to spill into the sea while vessel was anchoring in English bay, Vancouver, Canada. Master immediately informed the authorities and SOPEP was activated. Finally, the minor oil slick on the surface of the sea was contained with booms as the response was immediate. The affected cargo hold with associated pipe and surfaces were cleaned by shore workshop and crew, to the satisfaction of Transport Canada and vessel’s class. A review of our SMS was conducted after this incident and our procedures were updated with additional guidance and instructions. The environmental risk assessment was enhanced for the cargo hold bilges.

Considering the level of Danaos fleet activity, above figures prove the awareness of the company for a solid SQE policy, protecting both life at sea and the oceans. Although no activity is taking place within a Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas, no cargo operation/bunkering/etc., -vessels are only trespassing, we monitor the percentage of time spent in special designated areas and sensitive areas under MARPOL (MEPC1/CIRC 778) as well as our activity in ECA areas.

In terms of our SQE strategy, this year in order to ensure the good overall condition of the vessels, the full compliance with applicable regulations, rules and laws including all relevant environmental requirements, to verify the functionality and the shipboard implementation of DSMS, we enhanced our internal audit program by introducing additional internal audits which shall be carried out based on the following specific risk criteria:
  • The age of the vessel,
  • The recent 3rd-party inspection results i.e., PSC detentions, number of PSC deficiencies, number of deficiencies imposed during Flag State or Charterers Inspections, etc.
  • the overall evaluation of the status of the ship by the DPA or the Top Management.


Apart from GHG Emissions from shipping, with particular focus on Black Carbon with its disproportionate impact in the Arctic, the sector has also raised its concern and eventually set target to protect biodiversity. Up to 90% of exotic species are introduced in foreign territories due to vessels operation. Discharge of scrubber water, collisions, discharge of sewage and greywater and underwater radiated noise are manifesting not only the impact on the environment, but also the potential of improvement and could be target-set by the shipping industry.

For shipping, there is a major connection between tackling pollution and protecting biodiversity. In Danaos there are not only goals set for GHG emissions reduction. Such emissions are being constantly monitored via Waves Platform and data are shareable to interested parties, from Classification society to clients. Protection of biodiversity is also enhanced by avoiding over-exploitation of resources. The strengthened policy on waste management, the monitoring of fresh water consumption, the recycling actions, recently introduced for mooring ropes on eight of our vessels, along with company’s 3R (Repair-Reuse-Recycle) policy, the compliance with international regula-

tion for ballast water by installing UV technology systems in all of our containerships, thus majorly avoiding discharge of chemicals from treatment is a token of our efforts for protecting marine biodiversity. By the end of 2023, 98.7% of our diversified fleet of containerships and bulk carriers is already retrofitted with BWTS, with only one container vessel pending installation and scheduled for her drydock in 2024. We are constantly monitoring the percentage of operation of these BWTS systems in sensitive areas under MARPOL (MEPC. 1/Circ. 778). In addition, the application of sewage treatment and compliance with relevant standards, the adoption of a “zero-spill” policy with continuous fleet monitoring and predictive maintenance are implemented and paved the way to reach targets and set new, more ambitious ones.

In Danaos an action plan described by a set of measures is in place to mitigate the risk of oil spill, such as maintenance of all critical machineries for the related operations, routine drills and simulations, training both onboard and onshore through safety meetings, and a strong crisis management policy. We have established and implemented a robust Environmental Management

System and our fleet systematically complies with or exceeds environmental laws and regulations.

Additional measures taken to address the loss of biodiversity include the application to some vessels of biocide free hull coatings, incorporation in our online fleet monitoring of areas included in Blue Whales Blue Skies initiative in a geofencing-like approach and raising concern to our clients with our vessels chartered on calling these regions for compliance with the voluntary speed reduction. Danaos Officers are also highly advised for reporting areas of encounter with cetacean and protective species and for any harmful strike, actions descriptive of company’s sensitization.

As a tonnage provider, we monitor our vessels’ trading route and trespassing (if any) in any sensitive areas and particularly sensitive areas as per MEPC.1/Circ.778/Rev.3 Annex 2, Page 1, through our online performance tools. A total 1.2% of time spent has been spent in PSSAs in 2023. During this time crew o/b strictly follows all associated protected measures as listed as in MEPC.1/ Circ.778/Rev.3 Annex 2, Page 1, that include detailed reporting to the authorities, speed reduction, no anchoring, etc. No related activities are taking place (i.e. no cargo loading/unloading, no bunkering, etc.).
In Danaos an action plan described by a set of measures is in place to mitigate the risk of oil spill, such as maintenance of all critical machineries for the related operations, routine drills and simulations, training both onboard and onshore through safety meetings, and a strong crisis management policy.

Studies based on CFD and pulse analysis have been performed for the new propellers as part of company’s propulsion improvement project aiming to both improve the efficiency and reduce URN. The noise levels from the three main types of vessels — container ships, bulkers and tankers are estimated to increase up to 102% by 2030 compared with 2015.

Furthermore, assessment of suppliers and service providers based on their CO2 footprint is performed with the view of assigning a weighted factor during internal evaluation when setting up future collaborations. Such an evaluation will have major impact when it comes to ship recyling, already considered for some old vessels of the fleet but not yet materialized.

It is sensible that since Danaos is not a liner company and running of the ships are in the hands of our clients, some operational measures pertain to the awareness of the charterers.

Apart from, for example, voluntary speed reduction, there is also a very indicative example of such a case with high significance. This is the avoidance of illegal wildlife transport, with many of our clients officially committed to tackle it.

Supporting the environment is also manifested by company’s afforestation actions on an annual basis and contribution to HELMEPA (Hellenic Marine Environment Protection) initiatives through various social actions and participation.

Just like the climate change comes for our planet like a chain reaction, the same way we should respond with all links strong enough to withstand, going from ownership’s policy to each crew member’s and employee’s state of mind for a sustainable future.



The company has in place procedures for handling the water discharges incidental to the normal operations of ship such as ballast water, bilge water, black water and gray water. Water related impacts are assessed and handled based on IMO guidelines, national legislations of call ports where available, and company’s risk management tools. The Company’s policy concerning prevention of pollution by sewage from its ships is based on the following principles:
  • All sewage equipment on board the Company’s ships is type approved as indicated by a maker’s plate affixed to the equipment and are approved by the Flag Administration.
  • Vessels equipped with sewage holding tanks should use these tanks in all ports and following MARPOL Guidelines, dispose of the contents further than 12 miles from nearest land while underway and in accordance with the approved discharge rate.
  • Treated sewage along with graywater can be temporarily disposed through Class approved piping to designated temporary holding tanks and thereafter discharged to the stringiest regulation applicable.
  • Vessels equipped with chemical treatment plants should be used while in transit throughout all coastal areas.
The designated manual for the wastewater ship- board management is the Garbage & Sewage Management Plan (GSMP) which describes all the applicable International and National requirements. The manual defines the designated person responsible for the execution of Sewage Management Plan as well as best practices for the efficient running of a sewage treatment plant. Periodic maintenance and inspection records have been included into PMS.

Apart from the assigned personnel’s specific duties familiarization, all shipboard personnel are further trained and educated during the regular safety and environmental meetings held on board on the following topics:

  • International (MARPOL Annex IV) and national legislation of the States/ports called.
  • Specific requirements for the wastewater treatment and disposal of wastewater effluents.
  • The operation of wastewater treatment facilities onboard.
  • The disposal of wastewater to shore facilities.
  • Health and sanitary considerations, best practices to avoid abnormalities to sanitary system

All commercial vessels greater than 79 feet must have permit such as the Vessel General Permit (VGP) before they can legally discharge graywater in US waters. Vessels cannot operate in US Waters without a VGP in place. Danaos has integrated VGP requirements for the control of graywater impacts into its DSMS covering all fleet vessels providing onboard specific manual and CBT for crew’s familiarization.

We adopt a Ballast Water exchange policy which prevents the transfer of harmful alien aquatic species from one region of the world to another. All engineering, plan approval and installation work has been carried out in- house by Danaos’ R&D and Technical department. Each Ballast Water Treatment System has been evaluated for its efficiency, technical competence, operational flexibility, durability, and environmental friendliness, through principal certification and acceptance by the IMO, the US Environmental Protection Agency and the European Committee.

In 2023, a total volume of 5,397,827 cubic meters of ballast water was exchanged in Danaos’ fleet.

We aim to optimize the use of ballast water equipment and whenever possible perform ballast operations by gravity to reduce fuel consumption.
As a major container company, our impact on marine ecosystems can potentially be significant due to the ballast water quantities that are needed for vessels operation and stability.
In this respect, we aim at the lowest possible impact to the marine life and in order to achieve it, we strictly follow all relevant regulations in place.

Danaos initiated Water Ballast Treatment (WBT) installation onboard vessels back in 2018. Currently almost 98.7% of the fleet is already equipped with WBT. These are fully operational units and are used regardless of whether they have passed the IMO compliance date or not. UV light is used for water sterilization, this eliminates any bacteria and pathogens from the water volumes used. By the end of 2023, another 5 vessels have the system installed and running.

Scrubber discharge water is tested in the 9 vessels of our fleet that are equipped with open loop scrubber. As per VGP, washwater sampling from 3 positions shall take place twice during the first year of permit coverage or system operation, whichever is later. The two samples must be collected at least 14 days apart while as per MEPC sampling should take place only during system’s testing (commissioning) and at about 12-month interval for a period of two years period of operation (minimum 3 samples).

Danaos, apart from the standard VGP requirement, washwater is tested on an annual basis in order to verify system’s operation and that the discharged water is within the permissible limits. Within 2023, a total of 10 samples have been tested and 9 found within limits.

Discharged ballast water is also tested on an annual basis for all Danaos vessels, since 98.6% of the fleet is fitted with ballast water treatment systems. Samples are tested annually regardless of VGP port calls in order to verify systems operation and proper discharge properties. Within 2023, a total of 58 samples have been tested and all found within limits.

Though water withdrawal is not applicable for Danaos due to the nature of the company, we also monitor the total ballast water exchanged within each year, quantities are reported from vessels on a quarterly basis. Total ballast exchanged within 2023 is 5,397,827 m3; total ballast exchange quantity is also related to the total number of vessels of the fleet and is expected to increase along with the fleet growth.


Since water is becoming extremely scarce throughout the years, imposing considerable risks to several sectors, Danaos has gathered all past data regarding freshwater consumption in order same to be included in our public reporting and monitoring, starting from 2023. Consideration of freshwater consumption can enhance company’s competitiveness through reduced costs and environmental liabilities, being at the same time better prepared for potential future environmental regulations.

In total 11,842 MT of fresh water have been received onboard. This is a small fraction of fresh water used on board, given that the vast majority of volumes consumed were generated by sea water with desalination units.

Total consumption is linked with the number of vessels and since fleet is growing, the total fresh water that will be supplied will be increased due to fleet growth. In this respect, we have also included a daily average FW consumption.

Monitoring is made on a quarterly basis from our SQE department where vessels report relevant consumption per category.

Below graph represents 2023 values:

Moreover, for the fresh water produced onboard, Danaos conducts fresh water analysis in order to confirm that indeed fresh water meets specific standards as per MLC 2006. The Maritime Labour Convention (MLC 2006), which came into force on August 20, 2013, demands that Potable (Drinking) Water, should be tested (in accordance with World Health Organization guidelines for drinking water quality) at least once, at intervals of not more than six (6) months. Every vessel sends 2 samples on an annual basis, usually 1 sample from ER fountain and another from galley or accommodation area, in order to ensure that water quality meets WHO standards in all locations.

Within 2023, total 148 samples have been sent for analysis. We have specific contact with a laboratory in place in order the whole process to run smoothly and avoid unnecessary delays for analysis results.

Water consumed in headquarters during 2023 was 638 m3. In case of water consumed in company’s premises the effluent discharge is in the public wastewater drainage systems according to the local legislation and specifications.


2023 was really a fully active and energetic period, which Danaos Research Centre team was involved in various research, academic, network activities and awarded with new distinctions. For several years, it has embraced international research collaboration through an active engagement in joint initiatives and synergies, reflected today in the participation of Danaos in 31 research projects co-funded by the European Union with focus on:
  1. increase ship performance
  2. improve energy efficiency
  3. value chain integration
  4. digital transformation

In brief below are gathered the ongoing and the completed projects during the 2023.


  • AIRCOAT (Completed): Project to enhance a passive air lubrication technology that utilizes the biomimetic Salvinia effect.
  • EMERGE: Develops an integrated modelling framework to assess the combined impacts of shipping emissions on the aquatic and atmospheric environments, and the effects on marine ecosystems.
  • GATERS: Proposes the first retrofit application of a novel propulsion and manoeuvring device for ships, called “Gate Rudder System.
  • COPROPEL: Puts forth a holistic approach towards the realization of marine propellers made of advanced composite materials. Compared to their traditional counterparts, marine composite propellers offer efficiency gains in propulsion efficiency, noise reduction and weight savings.
  • iCREW: The purpose of this project is to adequately cover this emerging training requirement through the iCREW system, which will simulate with high levels of realism and immersion the driving needs of a small boat. The skipper trains in complete safety in an as-close- to-life experience.
  • BLUE BARGE: Will design, develop and demonstrate an optimum power-barge solution to mainly support offset power supply to moored and anchored vessels, limiting local polluting emissions and global GHG footprint in a life cycle perspective, following a modular, scalable, adaptable and flexible design approach, which will facilitate its commercialization by 2030.


  • ORC4SHIP (Completed): The project focuses on the development and optimal design of a heat-to-power system based on the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) technology, for recovering the waste heat from the cooling circuit of ships’ engines and converting it into electricity.
  • ENGIMMONIA: Benefits of using a carbon-free fuel like ammonia in vessel engines also coupling its benefits/ performances with other clean energy technologies.
  • E-SHyIPS: Will define a pre-standardization plan for IGF code update for the hydrogen-based fuels passenger ships and a roadmap for the boost of Hydrogen economy in the maritime sector.
  • RESHIP: The project aims to redefine onboard energy saving solutions with disruptive technologies in Energy Saving Devices (ESDs) and onboard hydrogen management in order to propose a hydrogen compatible solution for a seamless transition of zero-emission marine and inland shipping.
  • HP4SHIP: The new product is a high-temperature heat pump that recycles the waste heat at 90 0C from the on-board auxiliary engines (jacket water) and then upgrades this heat for low-pressure steam production at a temperature of over 120 0C for covering the ship’s heating services.
  • ECOMARE: It will design and deploy a set of innovation tools and services that will facilitate multi-layer optimization of fuel consumption; energy efficiency and emissions control management, with full respect to the implementation of the requirements of maritime sector regulations as well as considering applications of circular economy concept in the maritime field.


  • HOLISHIP (Completed): Development of innovative design methodologies, integrating design requirements at an early design stage and for the entire life cycle in an integrated design environment.
  • SLEEKSHIP (Completed): Semi-Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (SAUV) carrying a hyperspectral camera that captures light wavelength bands where light backscattering is less and the slime is easier to distinguish despite contamination.
  • PALAEMON (Completed): Intending to propose an independent, smart situation-awareness and guidance system for sustaining the active evacuation route for large crowds making EU passenger ships more seaworthy.
  • MOSES: Aims to significantly enhance the SSS component of the European container supply chain.
  • OPTISHIP: An “LCA for Shipping” must consider all “Three-Phases” of the life-cycle of a ship (design/construction (phase-I), operation/ maintenance (phase-II), and end-of-life/scrap (phase-III).The LCA can be used for optimal design of the ship, its optimal operation, and can deliver decision for “what to do” in multiple cases (e.g. scarp or no-scrap).
  • EO4EU: Aims to provide innovative tools, methodologies and approaches that would assist a wide spectrum of users to deliver dynamic data mapping and labelling based on AI adding fairness to the system and data.
During 2023, Danaos participated in 31 research projects co-funded by the European Union.


  • BUGWRIGHT2: The objective will be to bridge the gap between the current and desired capabilities of ship inspection and service robots by developing and demonstrating an adaptable autonomous robotic solution for servicing ship outer hulls.
  • SMARTSHIP: Builds a holistic integrated ICT- based framework for the sustainable, individualized and completely automated energy management of ships.
  • DT4GS: Aimed at delivering an “Open Digital Twin Framework” for both shipping companies and the broader waterborne industry actors to tap into new opportunities made available through the use of Digital Twins (DTs).
  • SAFENAV: To develop and test a highly innovative digital collision prevention solution that will significantly reduce the probability of collisions, grounding, and contribute to safer navigation by a faster reliable real-time detection of a variety of obstacles in the marine environment.
  • AUTOASSESS: Is a radical new approach for monitoring dangerous and dirty conFed GNSS-denied areas using unmanned aerial systems (UAS or drones), by combining the latest developments in collision-tolerant UAS, multi-modal SLAM, path planning, autonomous drone racing, aerial Manipulation, miniaturized NDT sensors, and ML-based defect identification. Only through a complete integration of these technologies is it possible to address the challenges of deploying aerial robots in these challenging conditions.
  • ESY | ECOSHIPYARD: Objective is to provide stakeholders and shipyards of various sizes and dealing with vessels of all types of construction materials (steel, aluminum, composites) a dependable and affordable toolset in the form of a flexible and extendable cloud-based platform.


Air lubrication systems have also been examined as a potential solution for increasing energy efficiency with CFD and experimental studies performed for candidates from Danaos Fleet. Wind propulsion has been considered as well, especially for the recently acquired bulk carriers rather than container vessel due to applicability constraints. Ultrasonic hull protection has been another focus, with feasibility study and lifecycle assessments to clarify return of such an investment and actual benefits. Under the umbrella of our low friction paint campaign, Danaos has proceeded with the application of state-of-the-art LF paints, as well as silicon paints and biocidal-free paints, for eighteen vessels in total, with their performance being constantly monitored for benchmarking purposes and real-time efficiency indexing both for internal and external usage for commercial purposes. Propeller silicon painting has been initiated as another technical project aiming to reduce cleaning costs and improve vessel performance on the long run after her dry-dockings, while continuous monitoring of performance and propeller’s condition will enable proof of concept for this project. Applying technological advancements of shipbuilding industry is of course part of Danaos’ R&D activity for the new buildings, being built in Korea and China. And if technological focus has been well presented with the aforementioned words, focus on seafarers wellness is of mandatory significance, with concept ideas like the women toilets, women hospital care and women personal protective equipment being aspects of such actions, since inclusion for even onboard staff are among the pillars of company’s equality policy.

The large-scale transition towards net zero by 2050 will, at some point require a full switch to zero-carbon fuels. Medium-term measures may, for some, include blend-in of carbon-neutral fuels, biofuels, or the use of bridging fuels such as LNG or methanol with a view to their bio versions subject to successful scale up in future while most short-term measures are largely about increased fuel and energy efficiency. In this whole context, the ordered NBs within 2023 are methanol ready, while two of them also hold an ammonia ready notation, with a belief that bio-methanol will be developed at scale and will be used as a carbon neutral fuel for shipping.

Along with the aforementioned academic, the Carbon capture and storage technology, is another promising area that Danaos Shipping R&D team is investigating as a possible solution to decarbonization. Within 2023, Danaos has contacted several carbon capture and storage system suppliers and studied the proposed solutions. At the same time, Danaos is also in continuous contact with Flag Administrations and classification societies to stay up to date with all relevant developments on this project. The major milestone of Danaos actions towards carbon reduction research is the participation in a Joint Venture Program. Ongoing theoretical research and development of experimental facilities during the last year are aiming to prove both in theory as well as in practice that reducing SOX and CO2 in exhaust gas could be achieved with a novel system and a groundbreaking theory behind. Experiments have already begun with promising first results while regulatory aspects have been initiated for Approval in Principal by Class society for onboard application.


Across the shipping industry, companies strive to find ways to leverage new technologies and maximize the efficiency of their investments. The new business environment demands the shift from the traditional business model of selling capacity, to one that offers value to customers, through transparency and data sharing. With the increasing need of global supply chains for seamless flow of goods and services, Digital Business is a key enabler for shipping companies today. Concepts and new technologies that are massively used nowadays, such as the Internet of Things (IoT), Big-Data, Artificial Intelligence (AI), Application Programmable Interfaces (APIs) and sensors, together with vast amount of data, are utilized to optimize operations, improve efficiency and reduce costs. In order all of these to be implemented, changes in the operating models are required as soon as possible in order the whole industry to adapt to the new demanding reality.
Our target is to work on the full digitalization of company’s processes ensuring close control and prompt response promoting fuel efficiency.

Online systems installation has been further increased within 2023 with 9 extra vessels leading to a total 60 out of 66 container vessels equipped with high frequency data, 92% of the container fleet. Another 12 installations are planned for 2024 (5 on existing vessels, and another 7 in the NB that will be delivered next year). Last but not least, 100% of the bulk fleet (total 10 vessels) is planned for online system installation as well for 2024.

Our target is to work on the full digitalization of company’s processes ensuring close control and prompt response promoting fuel efficiency.

Within 2023, we have also updated the ETS Manager in our Waves platform, which is our internal ETS EUAs calculation tool, by incorporating all latest guidelines about EU MRV and ETS, including latest info about the transhipment ports and the use of biofuels’ emission factor to be used for CO2 emissions calculation.

Since telegram extension structure was designed with flexibility, after the latest MEPC developments and guidance on biofuels telegram extensions have been updated in order to be able to identify whether a biofuel bunkering is accompanied with the required sustainability certificate.

In an effort to offer comprehensible access to the valuable Internal DANAOS Knowledge-base, an internal chat GPT-enabled search was implemented. Additionally, a GPT-enabled Bing Chat provides access to up-to-date information for any matter by accessing publicly available information through the World Wide Web.

Striving to improve the operations department workflow, a Charter Party Arrangements organization app was implemented (coupled with extra OPS-dependent information) as well as an Off-hires Log app to organize the data entry of Off-hires and the Idling periods of DANAOS fleet’s vessel. Furthermore, the Expected Port Calls app was created, offering a detailed approach for future/past port calls management and monitoring.

The R&D department’s workload was aided by the addition of the UGS Questionnaire (collecting CII reporting data and generating annual questionnaires) and Data Fetcher app (presenting the selected sensors and telegrams data using maps, graphs, and tables).

In the context of transparency and data sharing and in order to have a common path with our clients, we have proceeded with the creation of an API in order to share high frequency data with one of our major clients. After close cooperation between all parties involved, we have agreed on a set of parameters to be shared on a real time basis and worked together in good faith exchanging valuable feedback with the aim to develop a common understanding and build a concrete basis of constructive dialogue sharing any findings and best practices that they may identify on potential improvements to the Vessel’s energy efficiency.

After successful installation of ShaPoLi in our vessels in order to comply with the EEXI requirement, Danaos has also proceeded with relevant signal acquisition in order the Technical and Operations department to be alerted real time in case any violation occurs, enabling them to contact crew onboard immediately and proceed timely with the reporting to the authorities.

Finally, the Supply department benefits from the newly added Vendors Communication app, which assists in organizing the dispatch of CDP-related questionnaires to vendors exceeding a minimum order value, sorting their responses, and generating statistics on various CDP-related aspects of replies.

Last but not least, within 2023 Danaos has also developed Qlik Sense and implemented throughout its operations. 6 ERP applications were updated and / or implemented, and roughly 45 reports in Qlik Sense were developed for four of our Company’s departments. Operations & Freight applications saw notable upgrades, with vessel scheduling and invoice processing optimized for electronic approvals.

After the latest MEPC developments a specific extension to the existing telegram has been created in order to include all data needed for any potential voyage adjustment that needs to be excluded from CII calculation, biofuels bunkering details and AMP used. Telegram extension’s design base is flexibility, since it is structured in such a way so that the system will be able to quickly adapt in future changes regarding any additional data needed.
Moreover, since the past year has been crucial for all of our crew due to the ongoing war, Danaos has embedded crewing application into Waves Data analytics platform in an effort to monitor crew synthesis onboard all of our vessels, crew availability and all crew agents as well. Three (3) different routines have been incorporated in Waves Data Analytics platform as follows:
  • Crew onboard agents profiling
  • Crew resignation / extension on board
  • Crew pool control
In the context of transparency and data sharing and in order to have a common path with our clients, we have proceeded with the creation of an API in order to share high frequency data with one of our major clients.

In Danaos we place high value on data sharing and transparency. Our Waves platform is being constantly upgraded to incorporate all latest regulatory affairs and technology insights, providing reliable and stable data on a real time basis. Apart for enhancing our “digital surveys” in the performance of our vessels we have been participated in clients’ initiatives for development of their in- house tools for same purposes, enabling benchmarking and cross validation of data gathered from both sides and acknowledging that healthy collaboration will drive shipping’s actions to decarbonize, rather than competition and commercial barriers.

Participation of technical experts’ team in meetings for enhancing the performance of chartered vessels and dealing with commercial aspects of such implementation were more than 25, including from weekly meetings to personal meetings worldwide, establishing cooperation through in-person interaction with our clients.

Enrollment in Voluntary Carbon Market is being deeply analyzed for all possible candidate vessels, where savings from retrofits are translated in carbon credits, which can be subsequently sold generating income for the company. This fund will be directed to investments for fleet renewal and environmental upgrade of our performance. Enrollment in a program compliant with Gold Standards has been thoroughly investigated and will be probably contracted within the upcoming year. There is a link between green performance and VCM, since funds anticipated for large scale retrofits will provide capital for ship-owing companies, making decisions for retrofits and green fuels more viable.

We have also performed speed trials to verify new speed power curves on retrofitted vessels with propulsion improvements, while same will be applied for our fleet going into drydock and installing either propellers or ESDs.

Sustainability Team
e-mail: sustainability@danaos.com
Telephone: +30 210 41 96 556

R&D Department
e-mail: R&D@danaos.com
Telephone: +30 210 41 96 500

World-Class Shipping, Leading-Edge Expertise

© 2024 All rights Reserved. Created by Blissprojects